history of gemstones in india|gems of indian history

history of gemstones in india

Jewels of India-Indian History of gems

history of gemstones! Man has been a beauty lover by nature. Therefore, even when he was slowly moving towards civilization, he used to adorn his body with various things. Whatever the beautiful feathers of birds, bones, teeth, and stones, etc., attracted him to himself, he used to use it to enhance the beauty of his body. Even today if we look, we will find that small children are very happy to collect beautiful stones, feathers, shells, and pieces of bangles, etc. This instinct of man must have invented gems.

It is difficult to tell exactly when the use of gems first started. Nevertheless, with the consensus of scholars today, the use of the word gems as seen in the “Rigveda”, considered the most ancient book of the world. Other books were written after that which were written thousands of years ago, like Mahabharata, Agni Purana, Devi Bhagwat, Garuda Purana, Bhava Prakash, Charak, Vagbhata, Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Venus policy, and Amarkosh also about gems. information is received. The description of gems is also seen in the religious books of each sect.

The famous Greek writer Theopheratus has written a lot on the subject of gems. The first-century writer Pliny wrote a huge book called Natural History, at the end of which a large chapter was also given on the subject of gems. Famous writer and tourist of thirteenth-century Marcopolo, 16th-century famous gem merchant, jeweler, tourist and writer Tatevarnier, 11th-century Chalukya king Someshwar of Kalyani, 8th-century famous writer Buddha Bhatt’s book Ratna Pariksha and Alauddin Khilji’s jeweler Thakkar Feru Adi has written a lot on gems.

Red Garnet stone|substitute of ruby gemstone

Many names of precious stones are in vogue today. No one even knew him before. Many of today’s gems were previously known by other names. India has been famous for gems since ancient times, and India has the privilege of introducing diamonds to the world first. Before diamonds were found in Africa and Brazil, India held a special place in this region. The method of carving to be used in the role of diamonds was also first invented by Indians, from about 2800 BC, India had become proficient in this art.

India was ruled by the Mughals for a long time. Books were also written on this subject during his time. Books written of that period – Tajke Jahangiri, Badshah Nama, Tajke Babri, Alamgir Nama, Ain Akbari, Iqbal Nama, Wamasir Alamgiri, Bazme Taimur, Masir ul Umra, Muntakhab Albab and Abul Fazl, by Farishta and Abdul Rahman Shayed Abdul Rahman The information gives an interesting account of the gem history of that period. The information compiled according to all these books and authors is as follows:-

Sultan Alauddin Khilji had the most jewels among the Sultans of Delhi. When he came back from Devgir’s campaign, according to the historian Firishta, he had brought with him six minds of gold, one mind of silver, seven minds of pearls, two minds of diamonds, rubies, emeralds and topaz, and 4000 thanns of silk cloth.


Giving details of that wealth, Ziauddin Barni, the author of the date Firoz Shahi, has written that, Alauddin Khilji brought so much gold, silver, jewels, pearls, and fine clothes from Devgir that in spite of the extravagant expenditure of the later Sultans, till the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the treasury was filled with gems and There were pearls.

When a wedding was celebrated in the royal palace, the clothes of the bride and groom and the Khalat (a special dress or dress received from the emperor, consisting of at least 3 clothes) on that occasion, included Innumerable gems lived in tanka. When Sultan Mohammad Tughlaq married his sister to Amir Saifuddin, the Amir was given a Khalat. Ibn Battuta narrates that so many jewels were stuck in that Khalat that the color of the cloth could not be seen. The place where the bride was brought and seated was covered with deba (a kind of fine silk cloth) and jewels were attached to it.

According to Ibn Battuta, there was such an abundance of gold at that time that when Ghiyasuddin built a big palace inside the fort at Tughlaqabad, his bricks were gilded with gold. At the time when the sun rose, no one could see the palace because of the brightness of that palace. There was also a tank inside it, which was filled with molten gold. The bathing planet inside the royal palace was also of gold.

There were a lot of gems in the treasury of the Mughal emperors. When Akbar died, he had 10 crores of 11 to 14 mashes and 1000 Ashrafias of 100 to 500 tola in his treasury. Gold was 272 mana, silver 370 mana, and gems 1 mana. Diamonds, pearls, sapphires, and rubies were highly valued during that period. For whom all kinds of efforts were made to get.

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Babur got a big diamond from the institute of Raja Vikramajit of Gwalior. About him, he writes in his “Tajke Babri” – “When Himayun came to Agra, Vikramajit’s children were in the idea of ​​running away. Himayun had appointed soldiers but did not allow them to plunder and kill. Many gems were given to Himayu by his own will. Among them was a famous diamond that Sultan Alauddin had brought. It was worth about 216 Ratti. It is said that the eagles had fixed its price at half the cost of the whole world.

It is said that this diamond became famous as Kohinoor. Which Nadirshah robbed and took to Iran. But then wandering around Ranjit Singh reached Lahore and from there the British sent Mallika to Victoria and is now engaged in the crown of Britain. But some people think that this diamond was not Kohinoor. Rather, Kohinoor was called the diamond which was given to Shah Jahan by Mir Jumla in 1666 AD and its weight was 216 Ratti.

Shah Jahan was the biggest lover of jewels among the Mughal emperors.

Shah Jahan was the biggest lover of jewels among the Mughal emperors. He kept on collecting all kinds of gems. Trevornier, a French tourist and gem trader, has said that hardly any other emperor in the world has more jewels than Shah Jahan.

Shaista Khan gave him a huge diamond in 1655 AD, which weighed 116 Ratti and cost ₹ 100000 (at that time). This diamond was given by Shah Jahan to Dara Shikoh. Shah Jahan also found a huge diamond from Qutb-ul-Mulk of Bijapur in 1658, which was 180 Ratti before it was carved. The cost of which was ₹ 150000. Shah Jahan planted it with jewels in a candlestick and sent it as a gift to Medina-e-Munnawarah Roza-e-Pak. The cost of that candlestick was 2.5 lakh rupees.

Mir Jumla Nation gave Shah Jahan a huge diamond in 1666 which was 216 Rattis in weight and its cost was ₹ 216000. Tavernier wrote in relation to that diamond that, it is its own example in weight and beauty. This diamond was later called Kohinoor, which Nadir shah plundered from India. But it then came back to India and fell in the hands of Raja Ranjit Singh and is now in the possession of the British. The Treasury of Indian Mughals author Abdul Aziz has now told its worth as unimaginable.

Diamond mines

When Mir Jumla was the vizier of the ruler of Golconda, he used to take contracts for diamonds’ mines. Those mines were excavated with great effort and difficulty. Mir Jumla had such an abundance of diamonds’ that he did not count it. Rather, he used to count only sackcloth bags filled with diamonds’. He also gave a diamond to Aurangzeb in his 44th-year procession. Which cost ₹ 75000.
In the same year, Danishmand Khan also gave him a diamond which was worth ₹ 50000.

Diamond mines were often located in Golconda and Bijapur. One mine was at Rawal Kund, 5 km from Golconda, the other was at Kollur, 7 km east of Golconda. Diamonds used to come out of the sand of the Goel river in Bengal. Diamonds were obtained from Khokra in Bihar. There was also a Khan in Khandesh (Gondwana). Panna had to eat diamonds in Sambalpur and Veeragiri also.

gems of indian history

Priceless Ruby’s.

Akbar’s mother Hamida Begum had a red ruby, whose weight was around 138 Ratti, its cost was Rs ₹125000. On the occasion of the birth of Jahangir, he gave this ruby ​​to Akbar. Akbar used to wear it in his turban. Jahangir also used it on his turban for a long time. Then gave it to Prince Khurram.

Akbar had another ruby ​​which was 284 Ratti and its cost was ₹ 100000. Mullah Abdul Qadir Badayuni has a statement that among the gifts sent to Akbar by Raja Ramchandra of Bahta (Rewa), there were 120 rubies and one of them was worth ₹ 50,000. Prince Daniyal once sent a ruby ​​to Akbar. Whose weight was 104 Ratti? Jahangir gave a ruby ​​to Prince Parvez in his first brother-in-law’s procession. Which cost ₹25000. In the same year, on another occasion, he also gave Parvez rubies with 100 beads of pearls and in 1616, when Asif Khan became the crown prince, he presented Jahangir as a ruby, which was worth ₹ 40000.

Blue sapphire.

Adil Khan Bijapuri had sent a sapphire to Jahangir in his 12th year A procession. Which was 151Ratti in weight and its cost was ₹ 100000. Jahangir writes that such great Nafees, Khushrang and Shadab Neelam never passed before sight. Jahangir was given a sapphire by Etmad-ul-Daulah in his 13th year in a procession, which was very much liked by Jahangir. Aurangzeb’s treasury contained a necklace made of pearls and sapphires. Each pearl was of 10,10-12,12 Ratti. In the middle was a sapphire weighing 40 Ratti.

Emerald.

Akbar had an emerald, which weighed 429 Ratti. Abul Fazal has written its price as ₹ 52000. In Jahangir’s 12th year A procession, Adilshah Bijapuri sent him an emerald along with other gifts, ‘about which he writes that such a happy color and beautiful emerald was not to be seen” In his 13th year A procession, King Vikramajit Presented him a garland of emeralds, which was worth ₹ 10000. Aurangzeb’s treasury contained a necklace of rubies and emeralds, in which the weight of the emerald was 30 Ratti.

Ruby.

In the royal treasury of Akbar, there was a ruby ​​of 103 Ratti, its value was ₹ 50000. The ruby ​​was often used to decorate the daggers and to attach them to the ring. Mir Jamaluddin Hussaini presented Jahangir in his 13th year in a procession, which also had a dagger. On which was inlaid a precious ruby. So the price of that dagger became ₹ 50000. In the same year, Prince Khurram gave a ruby ​​to Jahangir. The cost of which was ₹ 40000. Shah Jahan had taken a ring of ruby ​​from Hukum Mara Qutb-ul-Mulk of Bijapur, which was valued at ₹ 50000.

Haqeeq, Marjan, Larjavart Gemstones.

At that time there was a great abundance of Aqeeq, Marjan, and Larjavarta. Many kgs. used to come in large gifts. Like when Mohammad Khan sent gifts to Shah Jahan from Balakh, he had 100 mans(in kgs.) in them.

Taj Mahal.

In addition to precious stones, abundant gems were also installed in the Taj Mahal. The names and quantities of some of them are as follows:-

Diamonds 625, Pearls 50, Amethyst 74, Emerald 42, Ruby 142, Larjavart 556, Topaz 556, Aqeeq 540, Turquoise 670, Coral 142, Oyster and other precious stones in Agate, Pittonia, Sange Musa, Ajooba , Reg, Rackham, Nakhud , Sange miknatees , Gauri , Tamda , Yamni , Paye Zehar , Lahsuniya, Khara , Billor , Pankhani , Godar , Marmar , Simak , Khato , Bansi, Gulabi , Jaddar , Yashab , Abri, Dana e firang , and Sang, etc were several. A gold box was also built near the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal. So many gems were embedded in it that ₹ 600000 was spent. This box was removed in 1652 so that it could not be stolen and a marble mesh was installed in its place. Which was ready in 10 years and in that also ₹ 50000 was spent.

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Takht e Taus(Throne).

Shah Jahan had a huge amount of different types of gems. Because at the time when Shah Jahan got the kingdom, the stars of the Mughal Empire were at the peak of progress. Innumerable jewels that had been accumulated in the treasures and jewels of the Khans in connection with the gifts sent by the emperors of other countries, the tributes of the rich princes, and the marle fortune of the defeated kings, were lying idle. He thought that these gems should be used in such a way that on the one hand they should be displayed and on the other hand, the glory of his sultanate could also be displayed.

When he started choosing his jewels, jewels worth Rs 2 crore came out inside the palace. The jewels of the royal treasury were valued at ₹3000000. Among them, extremely valuable gems worth ₹ 8600000, weighing 6 man 20 ser, 6 chhatank, and 3 tolas. All these chosen gems were ordered to be added to three and a half minds of gold. For this task, he appointed Be Badal Khan, the inspector of his Zargar Khana. Frames Taus was completed in the year 1634 in 7 years under the hard work and supervision of hundreds of artisans.

This throne was 3.5 yards in length and 2.5 yards in width and 5 yards in height. A roof was given over it. The interior of which was adorned in great decoration. The exterior of the roof was studded with red and ruby. This roof was of domed empty gold. In the middle, a large clear transparent precious stone, which could be seen across, was surrounded by rubies and sapphires weighing 260 grains, in such a way that the throne remained in front of the procession.

The throne was studded with 108 rubies and 160 emeralds and was situated on two 2-feet high 12 gold-stone studded pillars. To make a pillow around the throne, 11 beautiful stones studded with gems were used. Out of which the middle plank, on which the emperor was sitting with a pillow, was worth ₹ 1000000. In this, there was also the ruby ​​which was sent by Shah Abbas Safvi to Jahangir as a gift and its value was ₹ 100000.

On the raised part in the middle of the pillow, there was a diamond star exactly in the middle. This star was made with such an idea that it could also be rotated.

There was a golden tree on the middle arch, in which the fruits, flowers, and leaves of ruby ​​and emerald, etc. Two gem-studded peacock feathers were standing here and there on this tree. There were three stairs decorated with gold jewels to climb the throne.

When the throne was ready, Shah Jahan was happy and made Be Badal Khan weighed with money. When Shah Jahan, in the celebration of his eighth procession, was lit up on that throne, in His glory, songs and songs, masnaviyan were spoken.

Jawahar Khana.

In those days there used to be a ‘Jawahar Khana’ to keep the precious jewellery. Whose security was the responsibility of a reputed ‘mansabdar’ (government official).

In this, there was a heap of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emerald pearls, and gold and silver accessories and accessories. Although in the time of Alamgir, the hobby of buying gems was no longer as in the time of Shah Jahan. Yet his treasury was full of jewels.

The royal treasury kept accumulating excessive jewels because of gifts and gifts and there was no limit to the wealth of the Mughal emperors.

There is a statement of historians that Nadir Shah took the goods and fortunes from India with him. Apart from the frames, there were gems worth 25 crores, asharfis (gold coins)and silver coins of 25 crores, gold, and silver worth ₹ 5000000, valuable utensils worth ₹ 9 crores, furniture worth ₹ 200000000 and clothes worth 2 crores, etc.

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